1. Zirconium Phosphate in the field of catalysts.

    Catalytic performance of mesoporous Zirconium Phosphate solid acid catalysts.

    Mesoporous Zirconium Phosphate, as a novel solid acid catalyst, exhibits excellent catalytic performance and promising applications in the field of biomass conversion. The catalyst's high specific surface area, high thermal stability, and ordered pore structure contribute to enhanced catalytic activity. The presence of numerous acidic sites on the surface significantly improves reaction efficiency, making it more suitable for hydrolysis reactions.

    In this article, mesoporous Zirconium Phosphate solid acid catalysts were synthesized using a hydrothermal method. The catalysts were characterized using techniques such as X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, and ammonia temperature-programmed desorption. The catalytic parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, and catalyst loading, were investigated using microcrystalline cellulose as the raw material for cellulose hydrolysis to produce glucose. The effects of these parameters on the conversion and yield were examined, and a relationship between the catalyst structure and catalytic performance was established.


2. Zirconium Phosphate - Composite ceramic material.

(1) Low expansion of Zirconium Phosphate

    Zirconium Phosphate exhibits positive expansion from room temperature to 1100°C, with an expansion coefficient of 1.710-6/°C. However, in the case of sintered Zirconium Phosphate materials, as the sintering temperature increases and the high-temperature firing time extends, the thermal expansion coefficient decreases, especially after 1400°C, leading to an increase in negative expansion.


(2) Sinterability of Zirconium Phosphate

    Pure Zirconium Phosphate is not easily sintered even at 1600°C but remains structurally stable. Above 1600°C, Zirconium Phosphate undergoes slow decomposition, resulting in a decrease in density. Therefore, the sintering temperature of Zirconium Phosphate should be controlled below 1600°C. Lowering the sintering temperature of Zirconium Phosphate is primarily achieved by adding metal oxides capable of forming a phosphate liquid phase, such as ZnO, MgO, Nb2P5, Ta2O5, TiO2, etc. If the material's operating temperature needs to be increased, metal oxides capable of forming high-melting liquid phases, such as Ta2O5 and TiO2, should be chosen as sintering aids. At temperatures above 1400°C, Zirconium Phosphate grains grow faster with increasing temperature, especially during prolonged heating at high temperatures, resulting in larger grain size and more microcracks. Although the thermal expansion coefficient decreases, it also leads to a decrease in strength. For example, Zirconium Phosphate material with the addition of 5wt% TiO2 sintered at 1600°C for 30 minutes has an flexural strength of only 50 MPa.


(3) Zirconium Phosphate ceramics

    In recent years, with the development of high-tech industries, there is an increasing demand for materials with high-performance characteristics. For example, self-propagating synthesis of nano-powders, production of ultrafine α-Fe2O3 powders, high-precision rare earth smelting, all require high-performance kiln furniture. Not only is good thermal stability and chemical stability required, but also high strength to resist thermal stress and powder expansion forces that can cause damage to the equipment. Conventional low-expansion kiln furniture has low strength and is not suitable. Zirconium Phosphate ceramics exhibit excellent properties such as low thermal expansion, high temperature resistance, high strength, and good chemical stability, making them promising for applications in high-tech fields.


3. Preparation and characterization of Nano Zirconium Phosphate-Silver Antibacterial Composite Resin

    In recent years, antibacterial composite resins have been favored by researchers in the field of oral applications due to their excellent mechanical properties and aesthetic restoration effects. A large body of research has confirmed that Zirconium Phosphate-silver (LZB-GC) is a silver-based antibacterial agent with Zirconium Phosphate as a carrier, exhibiting ideal antibacterial properties and activity. Important improvements have also been made to address the discoloration issues associated with silver ions, resulting in good color stability.

    LZB-GC antibacterial agent was added to alginate impression materials at different mass ratios, with a control group as the blank. The antibacterial performance against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was tested using the film contact method. The study found that increasing the amount of LZB-GC antibacterial agent correspondingly increased the antibacterial rate against S. aureus and E. coli.

    Furthermore, the Zirconium Phosphate-silver antibacterial agent was added to denture base materials at different ratios, and the mechanical properties of the materials were tested. The research revealed that when the addition amount was 2%-3%, the mechanical performance was enhanced, and the antibacterial effect was good.

    The development of novel antibacterial composite resins by incorporating antibacterial agents into composite resins is a valuable research endeavor in the field of dentistry. In this study, mechanical stirring and ultrasonic dispersion were employed to disperse the Zirconium Phosphate-silver antibacterial agent at a mass ratio of 1.5% in a Duralay composite resin, resulting in the preparation of a Zirconium Phosphate-silver antibacterial composite resin.


4. Zirconium Phosphate in the Field of Water Treatment

    Studies on the Adsorption Characteristics of Zirconium Phosphate and Resin-Based Zirconium Phosphate for Heavy Metals

    Resin-based Zirconium Phosphate is a new type of composite environmental functional material with extensive application prospects in the deep purification of heavy metals in water. Among them, Zirconium Phosphate exists in two forms: amorphous and crystalline. The impact of crystalline differences on the adsorption capacity of heavy metals has been rarely reported. Furthermore, further investigation is needed to explore the specific adsorption properties of resin-based Zirconium Phosphate for heavy metals.

    Amorphous ZrP and crystalline ZrP (using α-ZrP as an example) were prepared, and their structures were characterized using XRD and pH titration. The adsorption performance of both forms on lead ions was compared. The results of static adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption of lead by ZrP and α-ZrP was influenced by pH. The adsorption isotherms of both forms could be well fitted with the Langmuir equation, but the adsorption capacity of amorphous ZrP (1.5 meq/g) for lead was significantly higher than that of α-ZrP (0.2 meq/g). In the presence of a large amount of competing ion Ca2+, ZrP showed much better selectivity for lead compared to α-ZrP. This suggests that using amorphous Zirconium Phosphate is more suitable when preparing resin-based Zirconium Phosphate composite materials.

    In the study, strong acid macroporous cation exchange resin D-001 and chloromethylated macroporous polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymer CP were used as matrices, and two types of resin-based Zirconium Phosphate (designated as ZrP-001 and ZrP-CP, respectively) were prepared based on the patented technology of the research group. XRD, SEM, and TEM were used for structural characterization. The nanoscale particle effect of resin-based Zirconium Phosphate and its potential Donnan membrane effect on the adsorption of trace lead in water were specifically verified. The results showed that the particle size of Zirconium Phosphate loaded onto the resin further nano-sized, resulting in a significant increase in adsorption capacity. The sulfonic acid groups bonded to the D-001 resin skeleton exhibited preconcentration and enhanced diffusion effects on trace lead ions in water through the Donnan membrane effect, leading to a significant increase in adsorption capacity and selectivity. This indicates that ZrP-001 composite material, which possesses both the nanoscale particle effect and Donnan membrane effect, is an extremely effective environmental material for the deep purification of heavy metal wastewater.